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Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan

B-com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes


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Default Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan


Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan

Friendsmania.net

* Ideology and Basic Elements of the Ideology of Pakistan.

* Two Nation Theory

* Ideology of Pakistan expound by the Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Iqbal

* Islam is the Ideological foundation of Pakistan


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Chapter 2 - Ideology and Basic Elements of the Ideology of Pakistan.


Q.1. Define Ideology and describe the basic elements of the Ideology of Pakistan.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Definition of Ideology
* 2 Ideology of Pakistan
* 3 Two Nation Concept
* 4 Elements of Ideology of Pakistan
* 5 Importance of Ideology in National Life
* 6 Conclusion

Definition of Ideology

Science of ideas, visionary speculations, manner of thinking, characteristic of a class or individual, ideas on the basis of some economic, social or political theory or system is called Ideology. It contains those ideals, which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood. Defining ideology, George Lewis say

Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy.


Ideology of Pakistan

Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. Its basic principle being

The only sovereigner is Allah

Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. Quaid-e-Azam said

Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.

From the above statement, it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.


Two Nation Concept

The fundamental concept of Ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principles, profess their religion freely and safeguard Islamic tradition. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said

The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their cultural development, their traditions and Islamic laws.

Thus, this fundamental concept of Ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.


Elements of Ideology of Pakistan

Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophers, social customs, and literatures. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Therefore, Muslim nation demanded a separate homeland where they could have the freedom to practice their religion and live their lives as free individuals of an independent country. There are five principles/elements of the ideological foundation of Pakistan.

1. Islam

2. Two Nation Theory

3. Territorial Land

4. Democratic System

5. Urdu Language


1. Islam, a Nation-Building Force

Pakistan came into being on the basis of Islam. It was only Islam, which galvanized Muslims and lined them up behind Muslim League. Other factors, political and economic ones, also played some part in uniting Muslims to struggle for Pakistan but Islam was the preponderant factor as it serves as a cementing force for Muslim society and is the primary link between Muslims the world over. Everything else follows Islam. The entire struggle of the Muslims of the subcontinent was to have a state where they could freely maintain their Islamic entity. No other factor was so clear and intelligible for Muslim masses. Muslims gradually developed a national consciousness in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent; they collectively struggled for the right of self-determination and the establishment of an independent homeland to be carved out from those territories where they constituted majorities where Islam could be accepted as the ideal pattern for the individuals life. They eventually secured what they wanted. Hence, the historical fact which could not be denied is that the formation of the Muslim nation preceded the demand for a homeland. Pakistan itself did not give birth to any nation; on the contrary, the Muslim nation struggled for and brought Pakistan into being. Quaid-e-Azam said

We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.


Islamic ideology is not merely a matter of belief, dogma and ritual. It is a religion in the wider sense of the word. It is a way of life, a whole complex of social and moral norms entwined with theological metaphysics. The fundamental teachings of Islam are universally accepted. Belief in God, finality of prophet-hood, human rights and social justice, management of affairs through consensus, moral values of charitableness, tolerance and universal brotherhood; these are sonic of the cardinal principles enshrined by the Quran and Sunnah. The only force which keeps Muslim nation united is Islam which is the ideological foundation of Pakistan.

2. Two-Nation Theory

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of struggle for creation of Pakistan. It implies that Muslims of Subcontinent were a nation quite distinct and separate from the Hindus. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first to give the wake up call and decided to prepare Muslims to fight the advertisity with similar weapons - modern education and knowledge, employed for domination. With him, his Aligarh Movement, his books and magazine Tahzibul Akhlaq, he started an awareness movement. he prepared the ground for uniting and galvanizing Muslim community of the subcontinent. His colleagues including Nawab Mohsinul Mulk and others created conditions which led to the establishment of All-India Muslim League in Dhaka in 1906, a landmark in the history of Pakistan Movement.

On March 22, 1940 in his presidential address to the All-India Muslim League Lahore session, the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah made it plain that

The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry, nor interdine together, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.

This was not a matter of mere hair-splitting but an everyday fact of life, which one cannot fail to feel in almost every sphere of human activity. This then is the crux and substance of the Two Nation Theory, which formed the basis of British India's partition in two independent Hindu and Muslim States. The Hindu majority areas of India formed India and the Muslims majority regions came together under the unique name of Pakistan. On the same premises Quaid-e-Azam dismissed the wishes of the Hindu and the British colonialists for a joint Hindu Muslim nationhood as a pipe dream. With single-minded devotion be fought against this menace and succeeded in getting the idea of a separate Muslim identity recognized. In the 28th Annual Session of the Muslim League in 1941 in Madras, Quaid-e-Azam formally declared this objective as the ideology of the Muslim League. It is this very ideology which is the second important ingredient of ideology of Pakistan.


3. Territorial Land

Amongst the constitutes of ideology of Pakistan, land is the third important element. A piece of land was necessary for the existence, stabilization and promotion of Islamic ideology as soul requires body. Quaid-e-Azam said in his address to Punjab Muslim Students Federation in March 1941,

Nothing would be achieved simply by raising slogans for nation. We are one nation and the nation cannot survive in the air, it requires an independent land to settle where it can rule and our demand is the same.

However, All-India Muslim League demanded a separate homeland constituting the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority such as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India on March 23, 1940. With Jinnah's untiring efforts, indomitable will, and dauntless courage, he united the Indian Muslims under the banner of the Muslim League and carved out a homeland for them within 7 years, despite stiff opposition from the Hindu Congress and the British Government.


4. Democratic System

In an Islamic state, all the affairs are decided on the basis of Shariat (Democracy). In other words, all the social, economic, political and the cultural affairs are operated on the basis of mutual consensus and Islamic democracy. The same system has also been referred in Surah Al-Imram, Muhammad (P.B.U.H) used to operate all the state affairs after discussing with his Sahabas (companions), When this questions rose that what would be the system of government in Pakistan, it should, no doubt, be Islamic. Islamic system of government is Islamic democracy or system of Shariat. Creation of Pakistan is the glorious example of ijma-e-ummat (national consensus). At the time of establishment of Pakistan, referendum was held in all the Muslim majority provinces to take their consent to the included in Pakistan. Sharai system of state, therefore, is the fifth ingredient of Pakistan.


5. Urdu Language

Language is not a fundamental characteristic of a nation, but still remains one of the features by which a nation may be distinguished or one of the grounds on which nationalism may be founded. In the sub-continent, Urdu was considered to be the language of Muslims and Hindi to the Hindus.

During the last days of the Muslim rule, Urdu emerged as the most common language of the northwestern provinces of India. It was declared the official language, and all official records were written in this language. In 1867, some prominent Hindus started a movement in Banaras in which they demanded the replacement of Urdu with Hindi, and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script, as the court language in the northwestern provinces. The reason for opposing Urdu was that the language was written in Persian script, which was similar to the Arabic Script, and Arabic was the language of the Quran, the Holy Book of the Muslims. The movement grew quickly and within a few months spread throughout the Hindu population of the northwestern provinces of India. This situation provoked the Muslims to come out in order to protect the importance of the Urdu language. The opposition by the Hindus towards the Urdu language made it clear to the Muslims that Hindus were not ready to tolerate the culture and traditions of the Muslims. So Muslims also began to think about establishing a political party of their own for their survival and centralizing their efforts to have their rights. Consequently, All India Muslim League was established in December 30, 1906.

The Urdu-Hindi controversy completely altered Sir Syed's point of view. He had been a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity but after this event he put forward the Two-Nation Theory, predicting that the differences between the two groups would increase with the passage of time and the two communities would not join together in anything wholeheartedly. Maulvi Abdul Haque aptly said

Urdu is the first brick in the foundation of Pakistan.


Importance of Ideology in National Life

Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and brings them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society.


Conclusion

The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.

Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947

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Two Nation Theory



Q.2. Explain the Two Nation Theory.
Meaning of Two Nation Theory

The Two Nation Theory is its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. These differences of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.


The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as

The Hindu society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course.

There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. Let us examine each of them separately.


1. Religious Difference

The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Tauheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life. Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and has a very narrow approach towards life.


2. Hindu Nationalism

A number of Hindu nationalist movement, which emerged from time to time in the Indian history, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities.

The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute condition.


3. Cultural Differences

Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burried them. Hindus considered the "Mother Cow" as a sacred animal and worshipped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed "Sati" while Muslims abhorred this tradition. The Hindus and Muslims do not intermarry nor they inter-dine.


4. Social Differences

The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin.


5. Economic Differences

After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to detriment the Muslim condition. They were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated while the Hindus were provided with the ample opportunities to progress economically.


6. Educational Differences

The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education while Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.


7. Political Differences

The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of Two Nation Theory.


(i). Hindi Urdu Controvery

In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian Script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.


(ii). Congress Attitude

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.


(iii). Partition of Bengal

In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims, but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.


8. Language

The Muslim and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages. The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Even this small difference led to a stirring conflict between the two nations.

Importance of Two Nation Theory

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization.

The Muslims considered that western democracy was not suitable for India, where there were two communities, one was in majority and other was in minority. In the case of United India, Hindus will remain in power, which will harm the interests of Muslims. The Muslims also apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. On one occasion, Quaid-e-Azam

Hindus and Muslims though living in the same towns and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.


The Muslims had learnt from the past experience of Congress's rule of 1937-39 in which they adopted Gandhian philosophy, Wardha Scheme and Vidya Mandir scheme of education, Bande Mataram as national anthem and promotion of Hindi language. Muslim mass contact compaign had convinced the Muslims that Congress was aiming at a death blow to Muslim political thought and was working for regneneration and revival of the old Hindu civilization and culture. They also realized the difference between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus. Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e. two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this concept, Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947, and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan.

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Default Re: Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan

Ideology of Pakistan and Quaid-e-Azam

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the great leader of Muslims of Sub Continent gave practical shape to the ideology give by the Allama Iqbal. He had a strong believe in Hindu Muslim unity and was of the opinion that both Hindus and Muslims should launch joint efforts to get rid of British rule.

After joining Muslim League in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.


Address at Second Round Table Conference in 1931

Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the Second Round Table Conference in 1913

The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settle before the enforcement of and system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win the (Muslims) co-operation, any constitution you enforce shall not las for even 24 hours.


Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory

Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of Two Nation Theory which became the ideological basis Pakistan. He considered the Muslims as a separate nation. He said

Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.


He defined the two nation theory as

The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.


Address on 23rd March, 1940 - Pakistan Resolution

At the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore, he said

The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation.


In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940, he said

India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of Nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belongs to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor interdine and they belong to two different civilization which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.


Address on March 08, 1944

While addressing the students of Muslim University, he said

Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages, had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.


Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia

Quaid-e-Azam emphasized on the Islamic ideology as being the basis of the struggle for Pakistan because he believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said

What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.

(Address at Islamia College Peshawar)

In 1946, Quaid-e-Azam declared

'We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.

(Address on 18th June 1945)


In his message to the frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said

Pakistan only means freedom and independence but Muslims ideology, which has to be preserved which has come to us a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, others will share with us.


The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted an established Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.


Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Statements of Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal, the poet, philosopher and a great thinker with the help of his poetry tried to awaken the Muslims of the sub-continent. He believed in the separate identity of Muslims as a nation.

In 1930, Allama Iqbal presented his mature political opinion on the political fate of Indian Muslims in his presidential address at Allahabad at the annual session of Muslim League. He said

I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they could not live with the Hindus in the United States.


He also said

India is a continent of human beings belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions....., I, therefore demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of India and Islam.


He stressed on the formation of a separate State by saying

I would like to see the Punjab, NorthWest Fronties Province, Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single State self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West India Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least of North West India.

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Default Re: Chapter 2 - The Ideology of Pakistan

Q.4. Islam is the Ideological foundation of Pakistan. Discuss.
Ideological Foundation of Pakistan

Religion has been, since time began, a powerful nexus between individuals and groups. Religion is also serviceable as a symbol, apart from being a sanction, of unity. It builds up civilizations and moulds cultures.
Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literatures. They neither intermarry, nor dine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects of life and our life are different. Therefore, Muslim nation demanded a separate homeland where they have the freedom to practice their religion and live their lives as free individuals of an independent country. Professor Muhammad Khalilullah has explained the ideology of Pakistan in most comprehensive style in his book Fikr wa Ufkar as
"Ideology of Pakistan was the resolution of Muslims for their survival as Muslims, to live in conformity with Islamic education and style. In other words, Ideology of Pakistan means Ideology of Islam. It guides us about every aspect of life. When we recite God is one and Mohammad (SAW) the messenger of God, we in fact promise to follow the right path directed by God and his last Prophet Mohammad (SAW) and refrain from where he disliked. So to follow the Quranic teachings is the Ideology of Pakistan. This concludes that our all efforts should be concentrated on moulding our life pattern according to Islam. Considering this factor we demanded for a separate homeland. In other words ideology of Pakistan is the medium for Islamic style of life. I believe that Pakistan can not stand without Islam."


Islam, a Nation-Building Force

The basis of nationhood in Pakistan is Islam. Islam acted as a nation-building force long before the establishement of Pakistan. Muslims gradually developed a national consciousness in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent; they collectively struggled for the right of self-determination and the establishment of an independent homeland to be carved out from those territories where they constituted majorities where Islam could be accepted as the ideal pattern for the individuals life. They eventually secured what they wanted. Hence, the historical fact which could not be denied is that the formation of the Muslim nation preceded the demand for a homeland. Pakistan itself did not give birth to any nation; on the contrary, the Muslim nation struggled for and brought Pakistan into being.


Conclusion

Islamic ideology is not merely a matter of belief, dogma and ritual. It is a religion in the wider sense of the word. It is a way of life, a whole complex of social and moral norms entwined with theological metaphysics. The fundamental teachings of Islam are universally accepted. Belief in God, finality of prophet-hood, human rights and social justice, management of affairs through consensus, moral values of charitableness, tolerance and universal brotherhood; these are sonic of the cardinal principles enshrined by the Quran and Sunnah. The only force which keeps Muslim nation united is Islam which is the ideological foundation of Pakistan.

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Admin thanx 4 this posting it is vry hlpful 4 me nd Also 4 othrzz

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thanx 4 nice sharing...

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