Pakistan Fashion Forum, Govt Jobs Pakistan, Mobile, Laptop, Camera Prices in Karachi, Lahore

Go Back   Pakistan Fashion Forum, Govt Jobs Pakistan, Mobile, Laptop, Camera Prices in Karachi, Lahore > Pakistan Students Forum Club | Free Study Aboard | Scholarships | Free Notes & Study Material > Result Pakistan - All Classes Results, Subject Notes, Guess papers > B-COM Part 1 Notes, Results > B-com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes
Home Admissions 2014-15 Health & Beauty Jobs Pakistan Govt Jobs Summer Dresses Cars-Bikes Prices Child Specialist Karachi

B-com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes B.com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes


Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society

B-com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes


Reply
Thread Tools
 
Post New Thread LinkBack Share
Old 03-24-2010, 08:44 AM   #1 (permalink)
Mind Reader
Govt Jobs Pakistan
 
Tanha Karim's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2009
Location: █║▌│█│║▌║
Age: 29
Posts: 151,305
Country: Users Flag!
Send a message via ICQ to Tanha Karim Send a message via AIM to Tanha Karim Send a message via MSN to Tanha Karim Send a message via Yahoo to Tanha Karim Send a message via Skype™ to Tanha Karim
Default Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society


Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society


* Pakistani Culture

* Cultural Heritage of Pakistan

* Rural and Urban Societies

* National Integration


___________________________



Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture

Q.1. Define Culture and Describe the salient features of Pakistani Culture.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Definition of Culture
* 2 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture
* 3 Salient Features of Pakistani Culture
* 4 Conclusion

Definition of Culture

Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on.


E.B. Taylor defines culture as

the complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.


According to Allama Iqbal

Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society.


Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture

Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.


Salient Features of Pakistani Culture

The main characteristics of Pakistani culture are as follows:


1. Religious Uniformity

Pakistan came into existence to provide its people a system of life based on Islam. The people, in spite of some differences of languages, customs and traditions commonly follow one religion of Islam. This is the religion, which is practiced by all people of Pakistan.


2. Language

A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. Some of them are Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto and Balochi. But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan. Being the official language, it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan.


3. Literature and Poetry

Literature is an important aspect of our cultural life. Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and trend in their poetry. They gave the message of love and brotherhood. Similarity of thought amongst poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life.


4. Dress and Diet

Dress is an important menifestation of culture. The regional dresses of Pakistan under go changes in the light of local traditions, economic condition, way of living and wealth in the region. But in all Provinces people generally wear Shalwar Kameez.


5. Mixed Culture

Pakistani culture is mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by birth and faith. But there is great influence of Hindus and British culture on the present Pakistani society.


6. Male Dominated Society

In Pakistani culture, the male member of the family enjoys the key position. Family is headed by a male member and in most cases, he is the sole source of income for other members of the family.


7. Arts and Architecture

The iconoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the use of elegant designs, based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature. The Shah Jahan Masjid, Shalimar Garden, Badshahi Masjid, Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the excellent Mughal architecture.


8. Handicrafts

Embroidery, leather works, glazed pottery, wood work, carpet making, metal crafts and ivory are the essential parts of our culture. Pakistani craftsmen are considered as the best in their craftsmenship. They are known for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries.


9. Recreational Activities - Sports

The recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common. The games like Cricket, Hockey, Football, Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country. These games reflect our cultural identity.


10. Education

Education contributes a great deal in developing national character. Educational system plays a vital role in the formation of Culture, Unity and Solidarity of a nation. It is therefore, important that the entire syllabus right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan.


11. Religious Festivals

Festivals play an important part of our culture. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country.


12. Islamic Rituals and Religious Festivals

Islamic rituals and festivals play an important part of our culture. The rituals and festivals are observed with unusual enthusiasm. Obligatory prayers, fasts during the month of Ramadan and the payment of Zakat prescribed by Islam are being observed almost everywhere. Statistics reveal that Paksitanis attendance at Hajj is usually very high. The enthusiasm with which Pakistani families celebrate religious festivals is a inspirational spectacle. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country.


13. Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets

Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life. Sufis like Lal Shahbaz, Data Ganj Baksh, Shah Abdul latif, Sachal Sarmast, Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub Continent.


Conclusion

Culture which includes religion, literature art, architecture, dresses, music, manners and customs has its roots in the Islamic culture. Islam has described the rights and duties of every individual. Even in drinking, eating and dressing, we have to observe certain rules prescribed by Islam. So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture of Islamic culture.

Tanha Karim is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-24-2010, 08:44 AM   #2 (permalink)
Mind Reader
Govt Jobs Pakistan
 
Tanha Karim's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2009
Location: █║▌│█│║▌║
Age: 29
Posts: 151,305
Country: Users Flag!
Send a message via ICQ to Tanha Karim Send a message via AIM to Tanha Karim Send a message via MSN to Tanha Karim Send a message via Yahoo to Tanha Karim Send a message via Skype™ to Tanha Karim
Default Re: Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society

Q.2. Define Culture and give a brief account on Cultural Heritage of Pakistan.

* 1 Introduction
* 2 Definition of Culture
* 3 Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture
* 4 Archaeological Heritage
* 5 Architectural Heritage
* 6 Heritage in Fine Arts
* 7 Conclusion

Introduction

In the development of any nation, its cultural heritage and its glorious past play a vital role and serves as a source of inspiration and pride for its people. Our country Pakistan is accordingly proud of its cultural heritage.
Definition of Culture

Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on.


E.B. Taylor defines culture as

the complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.


According to Allama Iqbal

Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It includes teh basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society.


Pakistani Culture is an Islamic Culture

Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.


Archaeological Heritage

Pakistan has been the cradle of civilization that dates back more than five millenium. Over the centuries, through successive waves of migrations from the North - West, as well as by internal migrations across the Sub Continent, Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs and Mughals came and settled in the region and have left behind the archaeological sites in Pakistan which is now being preserved. A brief review of the different civilizations which flourished and then perished with the passage of time is as under:


1. Moen-jo-Daro

Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana. A civilization fourished there some 4000 years ago. It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922. Moen-jo-Daro stands as most spectecular of all the excavate cities of the Indus Valley civilizaton. It is strange that at its glory, it was a beautiful city with brick walled houses, pillared halls, markets, baths, lanes, streets and public places. Every house had walls, drains and bathrooms inside it.


2. Harappa

Harappa is situated in the city of Sahiwal. Scientists and archaeologists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920.


3. Gandhara

It is comparatively a new civilization, the regions comprising Northern Punjab, Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures, as it was rule by many rulers. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. Thousands monasteries and stupas were widely here Buddha's figures, shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts.


4. Buddhist Remains

The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.C. The Buddhist monastery Takht-I-Bahi is in N.W.F.P, it dates 2-5 century old. Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represents Kanishka's mighty Pakistan. An impressive complex of Chapels, Stupas, quadrangles and monk's cells are also found. The great Buddhist civilization is now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan Culture.


5. Taxila

It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi. Taxila is the most popular name in history. It came into prominence during the Persian occupation. At its zenith, the city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities.


6. Thatta

The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent. Notable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan. The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill.

Architectural Heritage

1. Lahore Fort

It is also known as the Shahi Qila. It was built by Akbar. The main structures inside the fort are the Moti Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam, Maktab Khana, the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha. The Hathi and Alamgir gates are also remarkable constructions.


2. Badshahi Masjid

It was built by Aurangzeb. Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi. The masjid has been built with red stones while the domes are in marble.


3. Jahangir Tomb

This tomb was built by Shah Jahan. It is known as a fine building of Lahore.


4. Shalimar Garden

It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Granduer. The garden constitutes of three terraces, one above the other. Besides there is an elaborate and beautiful reservoir, water channels and fountains.


5. Masjid Wazir Khan

It is situated in Kashmir Bazaar inside the walls of the old city. It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan.


6. Golden Masjid

It is situated near Masjid Wazir Khan. It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also a very beautiful piece of architecture.


7. Mahabat Khan Masjid

This masjid was built by a Governor of Peshawar, Mahabat Khan, during Shah Jahan's reign. It has a fine massive structure with lofty minarets.


8. The Fort of Bala Hasar

This fort was built on raised platform 92 feet from the ground level. There are two gardens near the fort.


Heritage in Fine Arts

1. Paintings

Muslims brought with them the artistic taditions of Baghdad when they came to South Asia. In the beginning the walls and roofs of palaces and other buildings were decorated with pictoral and floral designs. Gradually paintings gained firm ground.

Mughal emperors were fond of paintings. Humayun brought with him two Persian painters, Mir Syed Tabrezi and Khawaja Abdul Samad. They adorned the story of Amir Hamza was pictorially rendered through paintings by these luminaries. During the days of Akbar the number of painters in the court increased manifold. This helped patronize the art of paintings. The matching of colours reached its zenith. The painters rendered pictorial copies of many a book and their fine paintings decorated a number of important public buildings.

Jahangir was a great connoisseur and admirer of this art. He could name the painter by looking at his painting. During his days the art of painting reached its climax. Beautiful plants, flowers, animals, birds and natural scenes were painted. The paintings of battle scenes, sieges and animal fights were painted with realism and unparalleled attraction.

The art of painting has developed slowly in the Muslim of South Asia. In the beginning decorative paintings and embroidery were made on the walls and ceilings of buildings. The Mughal rulers were very fond of paintings. The traditional art of painting occupies a prominent place in the hearts of the people of Pakistan. Abdul Rehman Ghugtai, Haji Mohammad Sharif, Jamil Nagshare are the most distinguished painters.


2. Calligraphy

The Muslim took a keen interest in the promotion of calligraphy. Its main reason is their deep love for Holy Quran. In the South Asian Muslim Society to be an educated and a civilized person on had to know the art of calligraphy. During this period various patterns of calligraphy were developed. Calligraphy was not confined to paper only but it got its way even on the buildings. The Masjids constructed during early and medieval periods of Islam were decorated with masterpieces of calligraphy. Aurangzeb Alamgir was the last powerful Mughal ruler who practiced the art of calligraphy.


3. Architecture and Sculptuer

Architecture reflects the natural inclination and taste of people. The Muslim art of architecture was unique in every aspect. The architecture and all the miniature arts including carving, sculpture, mosaic works, tile works and paintings were called upon to build new Masjids and palaces. The Muslim buildings are spacious broad, wide, well proportioned and well exposed to ligth. Muslims introduced perpendicular design in their buildings and the upper portion of Muslim buildings is never a mere straight line. It is often traversed by balconies, domes and minarets.


Conclusion

In the development of Pakistani society, its cultural heritage has played a vital role. Pakistani nation is justly proud of the historical period which brings with nearly 4th century B.C and continued with the advent of Islam in the Sub Continent in 8th century A.D.

Our cultural heritage expresses courage, patience and hard life. They all are in connection with life which is a fundamental part of Islamic teachings.

Tanha Karim is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-24-2010, 08:45 AM   #3 (permalink)
Mind Reader
Govt Jobs Pakistan
 
Tanha Karim's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2009
Location: █║▌│█│║▌║
Age: 29
Posts: 151,305
Country: Users Flag!
Send a message via ICQ to Tanha Karim Send a message via AIM to Tanha Karim Send a message via MSN to Tanha Karim Send a message via Yahoo to Tanha Karim Send a message via Skype™ to Tanha Karim
Default Re: Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society

Q.3. Describe the differences between the rural and urban societies in Pakistan.
Rural Societies

Pakistan is an agriculture country and 80% of its people form the rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Their main profession is cultivation and ploughing. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan. Our villages badly lack in civic amenities. There is no proper system of drainage. The drinking water and electricity are not available in a large number of our villages. There are no hospitals, schools, post offices and markets in most of the villages making the life difficult and unhygienic. The village population, due to the difficult living environs in the villages, keeps on migrating to urban areas where better facilities of social life and brighter chances of earning sustenance are available.
However, the Government is very much alive to the problems of rural areas. The Government is making sincere endeavours to improve the conditions of rural areas. Modern facilities of health and communication are being provided in the rural areas. Roads, dispensaries, schools, post offices and shopping centres have been provided at Government level. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages.


Urban Societies

Urban areas in Pakistan completely differ from rural areas in the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life.
The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Two cities have a dominating position - Karachi and Lahore. Since the 1960s, government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry, which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the cheapest form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate, and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. Inadequate urban transport is also a major problem.
The urban areas, unlike rural areas, are well-planned and well-built with modern residential colonies. The big cities, which form the portion of our urban areas, are the centres of high modern education. A large number of prestigious educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. The urban areas have become the centre of social activity because of their multifarious aspects of social life. The industrial progress and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing.


Differences between Rural and Urban Way of Life

The rural and urban life differs in a number of ways. For an agricultural country like Pakistan, it is essential to understand how and why life in rural and urban areas differs.

1. Function
Villages and towns differ in function. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal keeping, lumbering, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical treatment and other activities. However, these two sets of activities are not exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Shops, transportation services, educational and medical facilities are found in rural areas, too.
Similarly, there are vegetable fields within Karachi, Lahore and other major cities. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. As a consequence, the line of distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine.

2. Lifestyle
Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of villages and towns. According to them, close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive feature of rural life. The inhabitants of a village, for example, usually know each other personally. In urban areas, on the other hand, relationships tend to be impersonal; urban areas are so highly populated that most people do not even know who their neighbours are. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi. However, even in places like Karachi, there are pockets in the city where people who belong to the same community or village live. In such areas people know each other and have closer contact with their neighbours. In small towns, which are in reality overgrown villages, most people known one another as well.
It is also argued that while village life is traditional, urban life is rational. This is not entirely the case in Pakistan. Most of the urban population in Pakistan has a strong rural background. Although the use of urban facilities changes their way of living, it does not change their way of thinking much. In Pakistan, the lifestyles of the rich and poor differ far more than the lifestyles of city and village dwellers. The objective application of lifestyle as a factor for distinguishing between villages and towns is therefore difficult.

3. Population
Another factor used to distinguish between villages and towns is population. Although this criterion is applied in many countries, there is no agreement on size. In Canada, for example, a settlement with a population of more than 1,000 is considered urban, in Japan more than 30,000 and in Pakistan, 5,000. In Pakistan, a settlement can also call itself a town if it has a two committee or cantonment that controls electricity, the water supply and drainage. For example, Ziarat in Balochistan had a population of 619 in 1998, but it was still classified as a town because it had these amenities. However, there are only ten towns with populations of less than 5,000 out of a total 478 urban centres in Pakistan.

Tanha Karim is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-24-2010, 08:46 AM   #4 (permalink)
Mind Reader
Govt Jobs Pakistan
 
Tanha Karim's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2009
Location: █║▌│█│║▌║
Age: 29
Posts: 151,305
Country: Users Flag!
Send a message via ICQ to Tanha Karim Send a message via AIM to Tanha Karim Send a message via MSN to Tanha Karim Send a message via Yahoo to Tanha Karim Send a message via Skype™ to Tanha Karim
Default Re: Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society

Q.4. What is National Integration? What steps have been taken in Pakistan to promote it?
Introduction

National integration is the mean by which the people constituting a nation are brought together so that the whole people are unified by the leadership on the basis of their common system of symbols and institutions which these groups select, standardize, maintain arid transmit from generation to generation. National integration has two important aspects; firstly, the existing pattern of state and government and secondly; the formation and development of the character, mind and consciousness of every individual or citizen on the basis of the common ideals, values, norms, laws, beliefs and customs.
Pakistan has a traditional society which is full of several kinds of inequalities and various kinds of prejudices and discriminations based on caste, creed, race, tribe, sex, wealth language etc. So in these circumstances Pakistani nationalism is the only ideology of the Pakistani nation. Its ideal and principles are love and devotion to Pakistan as a country and as a nation. Pakistani patriotism inspires all Pakistanis, regardless of any discrimination, to defend Pakistan against all challenges ot its unity, solidarity and integrity. The principles of Pakistani nationalism were proclaimed by Quaid-e-Azam in his speech at Dhaka on 21 March, 1948, in which he said
You belong to a Nation now, you have now carved out a territory, vast territory, it is all yours; it does not belong to a Punjabi, or a Sindhi, or a Pathan, [or a Balochi] ... it is yours.
These words of Quaid-e-Azam are the true essence of Pakistani nationalism and are the real basis of Pakistan's unity, solidarity and integrity. But it is a misfortune of Pakistan that since the death of Quaid-e-Azam it did not always have a dedicated political leadership and love of democratic practices.
Pakistani nationalism had taken shape in the minds of the Muslims of the Sub Continent long before Pakistan actually came into existence. An ideology acquired territorial recognition to let the Islamic way of life flourish within its parameters. Preaching the same lesson of nationalism Quaid-e-Azam, during the presidential address to the Constituent Assembly on 11 August, 1947, said
Work together in a spirit that everyone of you, no matter to what community he belongs, ... no matter what is his colour, caste or creed, is first, second and last a citizen of his State with equal rights, privileges and obligations.... I cannot emphasize it too much. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities... will vanish... Your may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that has nothing to do with the business of the state... We are starting with the fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State."
National Integration is the "will" of the people to live together which comes from sharing common ideals, culture, language, tradition, history, religion, custom etc. This "will", however, is not to be taken for granted, a blunder committed by our earlier leadership. Unfortunately, they became self-satisfied, relying too heavily on religious factor which they thought no Pakistani could afford to violate. The fact is the national identity is one thing and national integration quite another. The identity factor is individualistic in character while the integration is a state that is achieved through the merger of individual identities, May be that national identity once acquired by an individual is hard to erase from his psyche. National Integration, however once it gets out of hand is difficult to restore.
The forces that tend to subvert the "will" of the people of a nation to live together are cultural, ethnic and economic. When a culture with its languages, customs, religions and other exclusive features fails to find roots in a society, it tends to develop its own separate identity. Ethnicity is a basic human prejudice which can be ignited by the fiery speeches of the charismatic leader. Once crimes against the humanity are committed in the name of race, creed and cult, a chain reaction sets in that ends up in death and destruction of the millions. Economic deprivation and exploitation of one section of a nation by the other brushes the national respect and honour aside and struggle for the control of material means starts off. The main casualty under all these circumstances is the national integration.
There is need to develop a Pakistani nationhood which should give people the feeling that despite regional differences, they form a people destined for common statehood. Diverse groups may also continue in a common state for reasons of economic and other advantages but if the advantage is uncertain and solidarity missing, the state will have to rely mainly on aggressive power to maintain itself. The people of Pakistan have an important role to play in national integration. These include intellectuals, media people, educationaists, students and people of all provinces. Sincerity of approach and purpose is the most vital element of success. The ruling party must evolve an identity of its own which should inspire faith, hope and confidence. It must follow the unifying parth of democracy. All threats to national solidarity must be faced courageously. Parochialism and regionalism must be replaced by national integration and cohesion. This is only possible through mutual understanding and co-operation, tolerance and unity in diversity and a policy of mutual respect.

Tanha Karim is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools



All times are GMT +6. The time now is 02:26 AM.


Admissions, Results, Scholarships | Health Beauty Tips | Pakistan Fashion Trends | Jobs in Pakistan | Overseas Jobs Abroad | Cars/Bikes Prices | Buy & Sell
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.3
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.

Disclaimer Friendsmania.net/forum is not responsible for any of the Articles, Comments, Reviews or User Names, as the poster of the particular Article, Comment, Review or User Name on Friendsmania.net/forum Discussion Forum.